By: Susan Dugdale | Last modified: 07-16-2019 | First published: 08-01-2006
Learning how to write a speech needn't be a nail biting, anxiety provoking experience!
Unsure? Don't be.
You may have lived with the idea you were never good with words for a long time.
Or perhaps writing speeches at school brought you out in cold sweats but this is different.
Learning to write a speech is straight forward when you learn to write out loud.
And that's what you are going to do now: step by step.
If this is your first speech, take all the time you need. There are 7 steps, each building on the next.
Walk, rather than run, your way through all of them. Don't be tempted to rush. Familiarize yourself with the ideas. Try them out.
I know there are well-advertised short cuts and promises of 'write a speech in 5 minutes'. However in reality they only truly work for somebody who already has the basic foundations of speech writing in place.
These steps are the backbone of sound speech preparation. Learn them well at the outset and yes, given more experience and practice you could probably flick something together quickly. Like any skill, the more it's used, the easier it gets.
In the meantime ...
Before you start writing you need to know:
Having an overview or speech outline will reduce the time and stress involved in writing and preparing your speech. Truly, this background preparation is gold!
Starting to write without thinking your speech through is a bit like heading off on a journey not knowing why you're traveling or where you're going to end up. Doing that with a speech is a bit of an adventure. You can find yourself lost in a deep, dark, murky muddle of ideas very quickly.
Pulling together a speech overview or outline is a much safer option.
Click the link to find out more about preparing a speech outline. You'll also find a downloadable, printable blank speech outline template. I recommend using it!
Before you begin to write, using your completed outline as a guide, let's briefly look at what you're're aiming to prepare.
A basic speech format is simple. It consists of three parts:
If you think of a speech as a sandwich you'll get the idea.
The opening and ending are the slices of bread holding the filling (body) together.
You can build yourself a simple sandwich with one filling or you could go gourmet and add up to three or even five. The choice is yours.
But whatever you choose to serve, as a good cook, you need to consider who is going to eat it! And that's your audience.
So with them in mind, let's prepare the filling first.
Begin with the most important idea/point on your outline.
Consider HOW you can explain (show, tell) that to your audience in the most effective way for them to easily understand it.
Did you know a good speech is never written from the speaker's point of view? If you need to know more about why check out this page on building rapport.
To help you write from an audience point of view, identify either a real person or the type of person who is most likely to be listening to you.
Make sure you select someone who represents the "majority" of the people who will be in your audience. That is they are neither struggling to comprehend you at the bottom of your scale or light-years ahead at the top.
Now imagine they are sitting next to you eagerly waiting to hear what you're going to say. Give them a name, for example, Joe, to help make them real.
Write down what you want to say about your first main point as if you were talking directly to Joe.
If it helps, say it all out loud before you write it down and/or record it.
(Click to download The Characteristics of Spoken Language as a pdf.)
You do not have to write absolutely everything you're going to say down* but you do need to write the sequence of ideas to ensure they are logical and easily followed.
Remember too, to explain or illustrate your point with examples from your research.
(*Tip: If this is your first speech the safety net of having everything written down could be just what you need. It's easier to recover from a patch of jitters when you have a full set of notes than if you have either none or a bare outline. Your call!)
Step Three is all about re-working "Step Two", (your first main point), until you've made yourself clear and are happy with what you have done.
How well you complete this third step depends on how well you understand the needs of the people who are going to listen to your speech.
Please do not assume because you know what you're talking about the person (Joe) you've chosen to represent your audience will too. Joe is not a mind-reader!
Check for jargon too. These are industry, activity or group exclusive words.
For instance take the phrase: "authentic learning". This comes from teaching and refers to connecting lessons to the daily life of students. "Authentic learning" is learning that is relevant and meaningful for students. If you're not a teacher you may not understand the phrase.
The use of any vocabulary requiring insider knowledge needs to be thought through from the audience perspective. Jargon can close people out.
We use whole sentences and part ones, and we mix them up with asides or appeals e.g. "Did you get that? Of course you did. Right...Let's move it along. I was saying ..."
Click for more about the differences between spoken and written language.
Repeat the "How to Write a Speech Steps One, Two & Three" for the remainder of your main ideas.
Once you've done the first block carefully, the rest should come fairly easily.
Between each of your main ideas you need to provide a bridge or a pathway. This links them for your listeners. The clearer the path, the easier it is for your audience to make the transition from one idea to the next.
A link can be as simple as:
"We've explored one scenario for the ending of Block Buster 111, but let's consider another. This time..."
What follows this transition is the introduction of Main Idea Two.
Here's a summarizing link/transition example:
"We've ended Blockbuster 111 four ways so far. In the first everybody died. In the second everybody died BUT their ghosts remained to haunt the area. In the third one villain died. His partner reformed and after a fight-out with the hero, they both strode off into the sunset, friends forever. In the fourth the hero dies in a major battle but is reborn sometime in the future.
And now what about one more? What if nobody died? The fifth possibility..."
Go back through your main ideas checking the links. Remember Joe as you go. Try each transition or link out loud and listen to yourself. Write them down when they are clear and concise.
For more about transitions (with examples) see Andrew Dlugan's excellent article, Speech Transitions: Magical words and Phrases .
The ideal ending is highly memorable. You want it to live on in the minds of your listeners long after your speech is finished. Often it combines a call to action with a summary of major points.
The desired outcome of a speech persuading people to vote for you in an upcoming election is that they get out there on voting day and do so. You can help that outcome along by calling them to register their support by signing a prepared pledge statement as they leave.
"We're agreed we want change. You can help us give it to you by signing this pledge statement as you leave. Be part of the change you want to see!
The desired outcome is increased sales figures. The call to action is made urgent with the introduction of time specific incentives.
"You have three weeks from the time you leave this hall to make that dream family holiday in New Zealand yours. Can you do it? Will you do it? The kids will love it. Your wife will love it. Do it now!"
A clue for working out what the most appropriate call to action might be, is to go back to your original purpose for giving the speech.
Ask yourself what you want people to do as a result of having listened to your speech.
Visit this page for more about how to end a speech effectively. You'll find two additional types of endings with examples.
Write your ending and test it out loud.
Once you've got the filling (main ideas) the linking and the ending in place, it's time to focus on the introduction.
The introduction comes last as it's the most important part of your speech. This is the bit that either has people sitting up alert or slumped and waiting for you to end.
Ideally you want an opening that makes listening to you the only thing the 'Joes' in the audience want to do.
You want them to forget they're hungry or that their chair is hard or that their bills need paying.
The way to do that is to capture their interest straight away. You do this with a "hook".
Hooks come in as many forms as there are speeches and audiences. Your task is work out what the specific hook is to catch your audience.
Go back to the purpose. Why are you giving this speech?
Once you have your answer, consider your call to action. What do you want the audience to do as a result of listening to you?
Next think about the imaginary or real person you wrote for when you were focusing on your main ideas.
Ask yourself, if I were him/her what would appeal?
Here's an example from a fictional political speech. The speaker is lobbying for votes. His audience are predominately workers whose future's are not secure.
"How's your imagination this morning? Good? (Pause for response from audience) Great, I'm glad. Because we're going to put it to work starting right now.
I want you to see your future. What does it look like? Are you happy? Is everything as you want it to be? No? Let's change that. We could do it. And we could do it today.
At the end of this speech you're going to be given the opportunity to change your world, for a better one ...
No, I'm not a magician. Or a simpleton with big ideas and precious little commonsense. I'm an ordinary man, just like you. And I have a plan to share!"
And then our speaker is off into his main points supported by examples. The end, which he has already foreshadowed in his opening, is the call to vote for him.
Experiment with several openings until you've found the one that serves your audience, your subject matter and your purpose best.
Writing your speech is very nearly done. There's just one more step to go!
This step pulls everything together.
Go through your speech really carefully.
On the first read through check you've got your main points in their correct order with supporting material plus an effective introduction and ending.
On the second read through check the linking passages or transitions making sure they are clear and easily followed.
On the third reading check your sentence structure, language use and tone.
Now go though once more.
This time read it aloud slowly and time yourself.
If it's too long for the time allowance you've been given make the necessary cuts.
Start by looking at your examples rather than the main ideas themselves. If you've used several to illustrate one, cut the least important out.
Also look to see if you've repeated yourself unnecessarily or gone off track. If it's not relevant, cut it.
Repeat the process, condensing until your speech fits just under your time allocation.
You can also find out how approximately long it will take to say the words you have by using this very handy words to minutes converter. It's an excellent tool that I frequently use. While it can't give you a precise time, it does provide a reasonable estimate.
And NOW you are finished with "how to write a speech", and are ready for REHEARSAL.
Please don't be tempted to skip this step. The "not-so-secret" secret of successful speeches combines good writing with practice, practice and then, practicing some more.
Follow the link and you'll find rehearsal techniques and suggestions to boost your speech delivery from ordinary to extraordinary.
Before you begin writing you need:
Basic speech construction
Your speech will have three parts:
Split your time allowance so that you spend approximately 70% on the body and 15% each on the introduction and ending.
How to write the speech
TEST before presenting. Read aloud several times to check the flow of material, the suitability of language and the timing.