By: Susan Dugdale | Last modified: 02-09-2022
There are four main types of speeches or types of public speaking.
To use the power of public speaking well a speaker needs to be proficient in all of them: to understand which speech type to use when, and how to use it for maximum effectiveness.
An overview of each speech type, how it's used, writing guidelines and speech examples:
An informative speech does as its name suggests: informs. It provides information about a topic. The topic could be a place, a person, an animal, a plant, an object, an event, or a process.
The informative speech is primarily explanatory and educational. Its purpose is not to persuade or influence opinion one way or the other. It is to provide sufficient relevant material, (with reference to verifiable facts, accounts, studies and/or statistics), for the audience to have learned something. What they think, feel, or do about the information after they've learned it, is up to them.
This type of speech is frequently used for giving reports, lectures and, sometimes for training purposes.
Click this link if you'd like more informative topic suggestions. You'll find hundreds of them.
A demonstration speech is an extension of an informative process speech. It's a 'how to' speech, combining informing with demonstrating. The topic process could either be demonstrated live or shown using visual aids.
The goal of the speech is to teach a complete process and it's found everywhere: in corporate and vocational training rooms, school classrooms, university lecture theatres - anywhere people are either refreshing skills, or learning new ones.
Learning to how give a good demonstration demonstration is very valuable skill to have, one appreciated by everybody.
How to write a demonstration speech
Guidelines and suggestions covering:
Demonstration speech sample outline
This is a fully completed outline of a demonstration speech. The topic is 'how to leave an effective voice mail message' and the sample covers the entire sequence from the introduction to the speech's conclusion. There's a blank printable version of the outline template to download if you wish. There is also a YouTube link to a recording of the speech.
Demonstration speech topics
3 pages of 'how to' speech topic suggestions, all of them suitable for middle school and up.
The goal of a persuasive speech is to convince an audience to accept, or at the very least listen to and consider, the speaker's point of view. To be successful the speaker must skillfully blend information about the topic, their opinion, the reasons for it and their desired course of action, with an understanding of how best to reach their audience.
Common usages of persuasive speeches are:
The most frequently cited model we have for effective persuasion is thousands of years old. Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, 384–322 BC, explained it as being supported by three pillars: ethos, pathos and logos.
Briefly, ethos is the reliability and credibility of the speaker. How qualified or experienced are they talk on the topic? Are they trustworthy? Should we believe them? Why?
Pathos is the passion, emotion or feeling you, the speaker, bring to the topic. It's the choice of language you use to trigger an emotional connection linking yourself, your topic and the audience together, in a way that supports your speech purpose.
(We see the echo of Pathos in words like empathy: the ability to understand and share the feels of another, or pathetic: to arouse feelings of pity through being vulnerable and sad.)
Logos is related to logic. Is the information we are being presented logical and rational? Is it verifiable? How is it supported? By studies, by articles, by endorsement from suitably qualified and recognized people?
To successfully persuade all three are needed. For more please see this excellent article: Ethos, Pathos, Logos: 3 Pillars of Public Speaking and Persuasion
Another much more recent model is Monroe's Motivated Sequence based on the psychology of persuasion. It consists of five consecutive steps: attention, need, satisfaction, visualization and action and was developed in the 1930s by American Alan H Monroe, a lecturer in communications at Purdue University. The pattern is used extensively in advertising, social welfare and health campaigns.
How to write a persuasive speech
Step by step guidelines covering:
A persuasive speech sample outline using Monroe's Motivated Sequence
An example persuasive speech written using Monroe's Motivated Sequence
Persuasive speech topics: 295 topic suggestions
The range of these speeches is vast: from a call 'to say a few words' to delivering a lengthy formal address.
This is the territory where speeches to mark farewells, thanksgiving, awards, birthdays, Christmas, weddings, engagements and anniversaries dwell, along with welcome, introduction and thank you speeches, tributes, eulogies and commencement addresses.
In short, any speech, either impromptu or painstakingly crafted, given to acknowledge a person, an achievement, or an event belongs here.
You'll find preparation guidelines, as well as examples of many special occasion speeches on this site.
How to prepare:
Because speakers and their speeches are unique, (different content, purposes, and audiences...), the four types often overlap. While a speech is generally based on a principal type it might have a few of the features belonging to any of the others.
For example, a speech may be mainly informative but to add interest, the speaker has used elements like a demonstration of some sort, persuasive language and the brand of familiar humor common in a special occasion speech where everybody knows each other well.
The result is an informative 'plus' type of speech. A hybrid! It's a speech that could easily be given by a long serving in-house company trainer to introduce and explain a new work process to employees.
And for those who want their speeches written for them: